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Peer Reviewed Research
Structural Integration : Descriptive articles, hypotheses and reviews: Rolfing
- Bernau-Eigen M. Rolfing: A somatic approach to the integration of human structures. Nurse Practitioner Forum 9(4):235-42, Dec 1998.
- Caspari M, Massa H. Rolfing Structural Integration. Fascia: The Tensional Network of the Human Body. New York: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier, 2012: 7.3.
- Cottingham J, Maitland J. Integrating manual and movement therapy with philosophical counseling for treatment of a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A case study that explores the principles of holistic intervention. Alternative Therapies In Health and Medicine 6(2): 128,120-7, Mar 2000.
- Deutsch JE, Judd P, Demassi I. Structural Integration (Rolfing). In Complementary Therapies and Wellness J. Carlson (ed) Upper saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2003.
- Deutsch JE,. Derr LL, Judd P, et al. The Ida Rolf method of Structural Integration. In Complementary Therapies in Rehabilitation: Evidence of Efficacy in Therapy. C. Davis (ed). SLACK, 2004.
- Froment Y. Therapeutic renewal: Rolfing or structural integration. Krankenpfl Soins Infirm 77(6):68-9, Jun 1984 (Article in French).
- Jacobson E. "Getting Rolfed." Structural bodywork, biomechanics and embodiment. In Healing by Hand: Bonesetting and Manual Medicine in Global Perspective. Oths KS and Servando ZH (eds) Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press, 2004.
- Jones TA. Rolfing. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America Journal 15(4): 799-809, Nov 2004.
- Myers T. A Structural Approach. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 2(1):14-20, 1998.
- Myers T. Structural Integration - developments in Ida Rolf's 'recipe' – part I. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8:131-42, 2004.
- Myers T. Structural Integration - developments in Ida Rolf's 'recipe' - part II. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8:189-98, 2004
- Myers T. Structural Integration - developments in Ida Rolf's 'recipe' - part III. An alternative form. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8:249-64, 2004
- Oschman JL. Structural Integration (Rolfing), osteopathic, chiropractric, Feldenkrais, Alexander, myofascial release, and related methods. In Energy Medicine: The Scientific Basis. JL Oshman (ed). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston, 2000.
- Rolf IP. Structural Integration. Journal of the Institute of Comparative Study of History Philosophical Sciences 1(1):3-19, 1963.
- Rolf IP. Structural integration . A contribution to the understanding of stress. Confinia Psychiatrica 16(2):69-79, 1973.
- Schleip R. Fascial plasticity – a new neurobiological explanation: Part 1. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 7(1):11-19, 2003.
- Schleip R. Fascial plasticity – a new neurobiological explanation: Part 2. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 7(2):104-116, 2003.
- Travazich J. Rolfing, Hellerwork and Soma. In Complementary Therapies in Rehabilitation. Thorofare NJ, Lack, Inc., 1997.
- Varela F, Frenk S. The organ of form: towards a theory of biological shape. Journal of Social and Biological Structures 10: 73-83, 1987.
Structural Integration: Rolfing Research and Reviews Related to
Chaudhry HR, Schleip R, Ji Z, Bukiet B, Maney M, Findley TW. Three dimensional mathematical model for deformation of human fascia in manual therapy
. Journal of American Osteopathic Association in press
Chaudhry H, Huang C, Schleip R, Ji Z, Bukiet B, Findley T. Viscoelastic behavior of human fasciae under extension in manual therapy
. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 11(2), Apr 2007.
Langevin HM, Fox J, Koptiuch C, et al. Reduced thoracolumbar fascia shear strain in human chronic low back pain
. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 12:203, 2011.
Langevin HM, Rizzo D, Fox J, et al. Dynamic morphometric characterization of local connective tissue network structure in humans using ultrasound
. BMC Systems Biology 1:25, 2007.
Langevin HM, Sherman K. Pathophysiological model for chronic low back pain integrating connective tissue and nervous system mechanisms
. Medical Hypotheses 68:74-80, 2007.
Langevin HM, Stevens-Tuttle D, Fox J, et al. Ultrasound evidence of altered lumbar connective tissue structure in human subjects with chronic low back pain.
BMC Systems Biology 10:151, 2009.
Leask AD. TGF-beta signaling and the fibrotic response
. FASEB J 187(7):816-27, 2004.
Panjabi M. A hypothesis of chronic back pain: ligament subfailure injuries lead to muscle control dysfunction
. European Spine Journal 15(5):668-76, 2006. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 10:151, 2009.
Porges SW. Vagal tone: A physiologic marker of stress vulnerability
. Pediatrics 90(3):498-504, Sep 1992.
Schleip R, Findley T, Chaitow L, Huijing P., Eds Fascial: The Tensional Netowrk of the Human Body.
Edinburgh, New York: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevire, 2012.
Schleip R, Klingler W, Lehmann-Horn F. Active fascial contractility: Fascia may be able to contract in a smooth muscle-like manner and thereby influence musculoskeletal dynamics
. Medical Hypotheses 65(2):273-277, 2005.
Schleip R, Klinger W, Lehmann-Horn F. Active fascial contractility: Fascia is able to contract and relax in a smooth muscle like manner and thereby influence biomechanical behavior
. Acta Physiological 186 (Suppl 1)247, 2006.
Schleip R, Naylor IL, Ursu D, Melzer W, Zorn A, Wilke HJ, Lehmann-Horn F, Klingler W. Passive muscle stiffness may be influenced by active contractility of intramuscular connective tissue
. Medical Hypotheses 66(1):66-71, 2006.
Schleip, R Lehmann-Horn F, Klinger W. Letter to the editor concerning: "A hypothesis of chronic back pain: ligament subfailure injuries lead to muscle control dysfunction
." (M. Panjabi). European Spine Journal, 2007.
Schleip R, Zorn A, Lehmann-Horn F, Klinger W. Active fascial contractility: an in vitro mechanographic investigation
. In Fascia research - basic science and implications for conventional and complementary health care. (TW Findley and R Schleip (eds) Munich: Elsevier Science, p. 82, 2007.
Threlkeld AJ. The effects of manual therapy on connective tissue
. Physical Therapy 72(12):893-902, 1992.
Vleeming A, Pool-Goudzwaard AL, Stoeckart R, Van Wingerden JP, Snijders CJ. The posterior layer of the thoracolumbar fascia. Its function in load transfer from spine to legs.
Spine 20(7):753-58, 1995.
Weinberg RS, Hunt VV. Interrelationships between anxiety, motor behavior and electromyography
. Journal of Motor Behavior 8(3) 219-224, 1976.
Rolfing StructuraI Integration and Walking, Pain, Motion and Balance
Preliminary clinical studies have been performed with small samples of patients with cerebral palsy,1, 13
chronic musculoskeletal pain,2,3
and chronic fatigue syndrome.6
The outcomes of those studies suggest that Rolfing SI may have positive effects on walking, musculoskeletal pain and associated limitations in joint motion, and on balance. Preliminary research on the underlying therapeutic mechanisms suggests improvements in movement coordination and efficiency,7
and reductions in anxiety.12
Ball TM. Structural Integration-based fascial release efficacy in systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE): two case studies
. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2011 April; 15(2):217:25.
Bouffard NA, Cutonreo KR, Badger GJ, White SL, Buttolph TR,Ehrlich HP, Stevens-Tuttle D AND Langevin HM. Tissue Stretch Decreases Soluble TGF-b1 and Type-1 Procollagen in Mouse Subcutaneous Connective Tissue: Evidence From Ex Vivo and In Vivo Models.
J Cellular Physiology, DOI 10.1002/JCP, 389-395. 2007.
Cottingham J. Shifts in pelvic inclination angle and parasympathetic tone produced by Rolfing soft tissue manipulation
. Physical Therapy 68:1364-1370, 1988.
Cottingham J, Porges SW, Lyon T. Effects of soft tissue mobilization (Rolfing pelvic lift) on parasympathetic tone in two age groups
. J Amer Physical Therapy
1988a; 68(3): 352-56
Cottingham J, Porges SW, Richmond K. Shifts in pelvic inclination angle and parasympathetic tone produced by Rolfing soft tissue manipulation
. Physical Therapy
1988b; 68(9): 1364-70.
Cottingham J. Effects of soft tissue mobilization on pelvic inclination angle, lumbar lordosis, and parasympathetic tone: Implications for treatment of disabilities associated with lumbar degenerative joint disease.
Public testimony presentation to the National Center of Medical Rehabilitation Research of the National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD; March 19, 1992. Rolf Lines 20(2):42-45, 1992.
Cottingham J, Maitland J. Three-paradigm treatment model using soft tissue mobilization and guided movement-awareness techniques for patients with chronic low back pain: A case study
. The Journal of Orthopedic & Sports Physical Therapy 26(3):155-167, Sept 1997.
Cottingham J, Maitland J. Integrating manual and movement therapy with philosophical counseling for treatment of a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A case study that explores the principles of holistic intervention
. Alternative Therapies In Health and Medicine 6(2): 128,120-7, Mar 2000.
Deutsch JE, Judd P, Demassi I. Structural Integration applied to patients with a primary neurologic diagnosis: two case studies
. Neurology Report 21(5):161-62, 1997.
Deutsch JE, Derr LL, Judd P, et al. Treatment of chronic pain through the use of Structural Integration (Rolfing).
Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Clinics of North America 9(3):411-425, 2000.
Findley TW, Quigley K, Maney M, Chaudhry H, Agbaje I. Improvement in balance with Structural Integration (Rolfing): A controlled case series in persons with myofascial pain
. American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, October 9, 2004, Phoenix Arizona. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 85(9):e34, Sep 2004.
Findley T, Quigley K, Maney M, Chaudhry H, Agbaje I. Balance improvement with structural integration (Rolfing) in persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
. In: T Findley, Schleip R, ed. Fascia Research
. Munich: Elsevier GmbH, 2007a: 242-43.
Hansen A, Price K, Feldman H. Myofascial Structural Integration: A Promising Complementary Therapy for Young Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy
. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 17(2):131-135, April 2012.
Hansen AB, Price KS, Loi EC, Buysse CA, Jaramillo TM, Pico EL, Feldman HM. Gait changes following myofascial structural integration (Rolfing) observed in 2 children with cerebral palsy. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
. 2014 Oct;19(4):297-300.
Hunt VV, Massey W, Weinberg R, Bruyere R, Hahn PM. Study of Structural Integration from neuromuscular, energy field and emotional approaches
. Research report submitted to the Rolf Institute. UCLA Dept. of Kinesiology. Boulder, CO: Rolf Institute for Structural Integration, 1977.
Hunt V, Massey W. Electromyographic evaluation of Structural Integration techniques
. Psychoenergetic Systems 2:199-210, 1977.
Jacobson E, Meleger A, Bonato P, Wayne P, Langevin H, Kaptchuk T, Davis R. Structural Integration as an Adjunct to Outpatient Rehabilitation for Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial
. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015:813418, 2015.
Jacobson E. Structural Integration: an alternative method of manual therapy and sensorimotor education
. J Altern Complment Med. 17(10):891-99, Oct 2011.
Jacobson E. Structural Integration: origin and development
. J Altern Complement Med. 17(9):775-80, Sep 2011.
James H, Castaneda , Miller MM, Findley T. Rolfing structural integration treatment of cervical spine dysfunction. J Bodywork Movement Therapy
Kerr H. Ureteral stent displacement associated with deep massage
. Western Medical Journal 96(12):57-58, 1997
Loi, Elizabeth C., Buysse CA, Price KS, Jaramillo TM, Pico EL, Hansen AB and Feldman HM
. Myofascial structural integration therapy on gross motor function and gait of young children with spastic cerebral palsy: a randomized trial
Fronteirs in Pediatrics, Vol 3, Article 74. 2015.
Perry J, Jones MH, Thomas L. Functional evaluation of Rolfing in cerebral palsy
. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 23(6):717-729, 1981Medicine and Child Neurology 23(6):717-729, 1981.
Potter C. Children with cerebral palsy. Physical Therapy Forum (Western Edition) June 18, 1986
Pratt TC. Psychological effects of structural integration
. Psychological Reports 35(2):856, Oct 1974.
Pratt T. Psychological effects of Structural Integration. Psychological Reports
Silverman J, Rappaport M, Hopkins HK, Ellman G, Hubbard R, Belleza T, Baldwin T, Griffin R, Kling R. Stress, stimulus intensity control, and the structural integration technique
. Confinia Psychiatrica 16(3):201-19, 1973.
Silverman J, Rappaport M, Hopkins HK, Ellman G, Hubbard R, Belleza T, Baldwin T, Griffin R, Kling R. Stress, stimulus intensity control, and the Structural Integration technique. Confinia Psychiatrica
Solit, M. A study in structural dynamics
. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 62(30-40), 1962
Stall P, Teixeira MJ. Fibromyalgia syndrome treated with the structural integration Rolfing® method
. Rev Dor. São Paulo, 15(4):248-52, Oct-Dec 2014.
Stall P. Hosomi JK, Faelli CYP, Pai HJ, Teixeira MJ and Marchiori PE. Effects of structural integration Rolfing® method and acupuncture on fibromyalgia.
Rev Dor. São Paulo, 2015 apr-jun;16(2):96-101
Talty CM, DeMasi I, Deutsch JE. Structural integration applied to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a retrospective chart review Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 27(1):83, 1998.
Weinberg RS, Hunt VV. Effects of structural integration on state-trait anxiety
. Journal of Clinical Psychology 35(2), April 1979.
Weinberg R, Hunt VV. Effects of Structural Integration on state-trait anxiety. J Clinical Psychol
ogy 1979; 35(2): 319-22